Fetal heart rate (FHR) screening is an essential component of prenatal care to monitor the well-being of the developing fetus. There are several methods and tests used to screen and assess the fetal heart rate during pregnancy. Here are common methods:

Doppler Ultrasound: Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive technique used to assess the fetal heart rate. It involves using ultrasound waves to detect and amplify the sound of the baby’s heartbeat. Doppler ultrasound is often used during routine prenatal visits to listen to the fetal heart rate.

Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring (EFM): Electronic fetal monitoring involves the use of special devices placed on the mother’s abdomen to continuously monitor the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during labor. It is commonly used in hospitals, especially during labor and delivery.

Non-Stress Test (NST): The NST is a prenatal screening test that measures the fetal heart rate in response to the baby’s movements. It is usually performed in the third trimester and involves monitoring the fetal heart rate for a specified period while the mother rests or the baby moves.

Contraction Stress Test (CST): The CST evaluates the fetal heart rate response to uterine contractions. It is typically performed in situations where there is a higher risk of complications, and the baby’s well-being needs closer monitoring.

Biophysical Profile (BPP): The BPP is a comprehensive test that includes an assessment of the fetal heart rate, fetal movements, fetal muscle tone, amniotic fluid levels, and sometimes, breathing movements. It provides a more comprehensive evaluation of fetal well-being.

Fetal Echocardiogram (Fetal Echo): While not a routine screening test, a fetal echocardiogram is a specialized ultrasound that focuses on the fetal heart. It may be recommended if there is a suspicion of congenital heart abnormalities or if there are risk factors present.

These screening methods help healthcare providers assess the fetal heart rate and detect any signs of distress or abnormalities. The appropriate screening method may vary depending on factors such as gestational age, maternal health, and specific clinical indications.

It’s important to note that fetal heart rate monitoring is just one aspect of prenatal care. Regular prenatal visits, ultrasound scans, and additional screenings are part of a comprehensive approach to monitor the health and development of both the mother and the baby throughout pregnancy. If you have specific concerns or questions about fetal heart rate monitoring, it’s best to discuss them with your healthcare provider.